Difference between Endnotes vs. Footnotes Referencing

Difference between Endnotes vs. Footnotes Referencing

If your teacher asks you to include notes in your work or if you are writing a school paper utilizing Chicago-style citations using the notes-Biblio format, you must be aware of the distinction between footnotes and endnotes. Normally, notes are provided in Chicago 17 notes-Biblio style; however, if your instructor requests them, you may use them in an academic assignment formatted in MLA or APA.

At the bottom of each page are footnotes. Endnotes are listed at the end of the text following the reference list or bibliography. Choose one style of footnote and stick with it rather than combining them.

In Chicago notes and bibliography style, you can use either endnotes or footnotes, and citations are formatted the same way in both instances. Although they are not used for citations in the APA and MLA styles, footnotes and endnotes can be utilized to provide additional information.

What Format Should You Use?

Keep the following things in mind while choosing which format to use:


  • Footnotes are shorter since the author and other information may already be present in the text.
  • Footnotes may change how your document is formatted.
  • Prolonged footnotes divert the reader’s focus from the text.


  • Endnotes can be annoying if the reader needs to constantly turn to the back of the book.
  • It is easier to read the pages when the notes are put at the conclusion of the document.
  • Endnotes should be added to your research paper after the bibliography but before the conclusion.

Comparison of the benefits and drawbacks of footnotes and endnotes

Benefits of using endnotes:

Endnotes are a component of a research paper that enables readers to read and consider all of the notes at once. They take up very little space on the page, are less distracting to the reader, and help with the flow of the story.

Endnotes have the following drawbacks:

  • You must proceed to the end of the research report in order to read the content of a specific endnote.
  • Endnotes may be seen negatively, much like the traditional “fine print” or unstated disclaimers in ads. By putting anything in a difficult-to-find endnote, a reader could think you’re trying to conceal something.
  • Continual numbers or numbers begin afresh for each chapter, which is how they will be produced. To discover the right endnote, you might need to memorize both the chapter and endnote numbers.
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Footnotes provide the following benefits:

  • Readers may quickly scan the document to find the reference they’re looking for.
  • Footnotes are automatically inserted when printing specified pages
  • Allowing readers to tie them to the text’s subject without having to look for them in the book’s back matter

Endnotes have the following drawbacks:

  • Footnotes can jam up a manuscript and have a negative impact on how it reads as a whole.
  • Long footnotes could occupy too much space on the page, yet this is an issue that is acceptable in legal studies.
  • If there are multiple charts, graphs, or tables and only a short amount of text that contains footnotes, you must choose where the footnotes should be placed.
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Guidelines for Using Footnotes or Endnotes

  • All footnotes in a research publication, such as tables, figures, charts, etc., are numbered sequentially, with the exception of those integrating unique information. In “superscript” form, footnote numbers are typed in Arabic directly above the line of text. Slashes, periods, and parentheses are not permitted. All punctuation, with the exception of dashes, may be understood.
  • The footnote numbers are often placed with the quoted or paraphrased material at the conclusion of the sentence, clause, or phrase. Depending on the writing style used in your class, endnotes may take the place of a list of sources you cited in your paper and even reflect non-bibliographic items like remarks or findings. This list of references will be alphabetized by the last name of the author and will be separate from the list of sources you cited in your paper. If you have any issues with how to use endnotes, speak with your lecturer.
  • Endnotes have largely replaced footnotes in academic writing since they are much simpler to include. Especially with the advent of word processing programs, and are now often seen as a little bit outdated. However, some disciplines continue to extensively rely on footnotes, such as history and law. No matter whatever style you pick, make sure to employ it consistently throughout your work by asking your professor about the proper structure.

Finishing Lines

If your instructor feels that your endnotes or footnotes are adequate proof. You might not have been required to submit a Works Cited, References, or Bibliography page. Alternatively, you must include all of the citations that were previously mentioned in your Endnotes. Or Notes page on a new page titled Works Cited, References. Or Bibliography that is included at the conclusion of your work.

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