A Quick Guide To Understand Firefighting Standpipe Systems

Standpipe systems is an arrangement involving a series of pipes, valves like a lock shield valve, hose connections and related equipment, all installed in a building or structure. With a standpipe system installed, firefighters can deploy hose connections quickly and act on dosing the fire outbreak in a rapid and efficient way.

The National Fire Protection System 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, defines a standpipe system as, “An arrangement of piping, hose connections, valves and allied equipment installed in a building or structure, with the hose connections installed in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams through the connected hose and nozzles, for the purposes of extinguishing a fire, thereby protecting a building or structure and its contents in addition to protecting the occupants. This is accomplished by means of connections to water supply systems or by means of pump tanks and other equipment necessary to provide an adequate supply of water to the hose connections.”

A Quick Guide To Understand Firefighting Standpipe Systems

Standpipe system is essentially a way of delivering water from one area of the facility or structure to another so that the firefighters can combat the fire outbreak while simultaneously shortening the length of the attack lines and supply. Standpipes can either be simple or an intricate system, however, both arrangements are established for the same result which is water delivery. These systems can be vertically or horizontally set up.

If you are interested to learn and understand about standpipe systems then make sure to read this guide till the end.

Different Types of Standpipe Systems

There are essentially four types of standpipe systems that are in use. These are –

  1. Automatic dry standpipe – In this type of standpipe system there is air stored inside the standpipe always and that too at a constant pressure. When a hose valve is opened, the air gets released that allows the water to get into the standpipe system.
  2. Manual dry standpipe – This type of system has only pipes that feed the system with no air or water in them. The use of fire apparatus is a must for supplying the water through the standpipe.
  3. Semi-automatic dry standpipe – In this system, air is stored inside the pipes, which can either be pressurised or not pressurized. Once an actuation device such as an electrical switch or a manual pull station is activated, water then enters the system.
  4. Wet system – Wet standpipe system includes pipes that have water at all times and is supplied by a water source. In this system, the pressure is maintained constantly.

To set up any of these standpipe systems, it is important to choose the best quality components for the system set up. Get in touch with the best firefighting lock shield valve UAE suppliers for valve and other component supplies.

The Role of Lock Shield Valve in Standpipe System

While the standpipe system is installed in a building facility for quick hose connection in case of a fire outbreak, there must be some sort of security to avoid unnecessary access to the system.

This is where a lock shield valve comes into play. With the installation of this valve unauthorized access and operation of the fire hose reels can be prevented.

Classes of Standpipe Systems

Standpipes have three classes which determines who can access water during a fire outbreak.

Class I Standpipe Systems

Class I standpipe system installations are done for use by the fire department and are usually needed in buildings that have more than three stories above or below grade due to the time and difficulty involved in laying hose from fire apparatus directly to remote floors.

It is also sometimes required to be set up in malls, because these occupancies contain areas that are hard to access directly with hose from fire apparatus. Locations for hose connections in Class I systems include:

  • Each main floor or intermediate landing of required stairs.
  • On the roof if the stairwell does not have roof access.
  • Exit passageways.
  • Each side of exit openings in horizontal exits.
  • Availability of additional hose connections in unsprinklered buildings where the distance from a hose connection to the most isolated part of the floor goes beyond the limits in NFPA 14 based on the sprinkler system type and building type.

The minimum residual pressure needed for a Class I standpipe system is 100 psi (6.9 bar) from the hose connection hydraulically most  remote 2 ½ in. (65 mm) having a flow rate of 500 gpm (1893 L/min), through the two most remote 2 ½  in. (65 mm) hose connections.

A pressure-regulating device may be required to be used in order to restrict the pressure at hose connections to less than 175 psi (12.1 bar) static.

Class II Standpipe Systems

Class II standpipe systems are installed in large non-sprinklered buildings for use by trained personnel. These systems might also be required to safeguard special hazard areas, such as stages and exhibit halls.

Class II systems require to offer sufficient hose stations so that all portions of each floor level of the building are within 130 ft (39.7 m) of a 1 ½ in (40 mm) hose connection provided with 1 1∕ 2 in hose or within 120 ft (36.6 m) of a hose connection provided with less than 1 1½ ∕ 2 in. (40 mm) hose connection.

Class II system requires minimum residual pressure of 65 psi (4.5 bar) from a remote 1 -1/2½ in. (40 mm) hose connection with a minimal flow rate of 100 gpm (379 L/min). In order to limit the pressure at these hose connections below 65 psi, a pressure-regulating device may need to be used.

Class III Standpipe Systems

Class III standpipe systems are a combination of Class I and Class II systems’ features. They are set up for both first-aid and full-scale firefighting. These systems are typically intended for use by fire brigades and fire departments.

Since these standpipe systems have multiple uses, Class III systems are delivered with both Class I and Class II hose connections and must fulfil the flow, placement and pressure requirements for both Class I and Class II systems.

If you wish to learn more or discover the various components of standpipe systems such as lock shield valve, pipes, hose connections and more then be sure to find the best suppliers. Careful selection of these components ensures top-notch setup of the standpipe system in a building.

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